Vettel, who trails Hamilton by three points in the title race, fended off the challenge from the rampant Red Bulls of Max Verstappen and Daniel Ricciardo to seal the front spot by one-third of a second.
The Ferrari driver punched the air with delight and celebrated his 49th career pole like a victory.
With overtaking virtually impossible at this 3.2-mile street circuit, he will start the race as the overwhelming favourite to move ahead of Hamilton and return to the summit of the standings.
Singapore Grand Prix 2017 Q1 results
Calm for Max Verstappen, who retains pole position.
Daniel Ricciardo and Fernando Alonso finish in second and third respectively.
Lewis Hamilton, however, is down in sixth. Sebastian Vettel in 12th.
Kevin Magnussen, Felipe Massa, Lance Stroll, Pascal Wehrlein and Marcus Ericsson all drop out.
Singapore Grand Prix 2017 Q2 results
Relief for Alonso, who manages to just about make the cut. He finishes ninth.
Hamilton rises to fifth but Vettel, who was previously 12th, has managed to pip the Brit to fourth.
Verstappen remains in front with Kimi Raikkonen in third.
Joleon Palmer, Sergio Perez, Dani Kvyat, Estaban Ocon and Roman Grosjean have been knocked out
Singapore Grand Prix 2017 Q3 results
Vettel has had quite a day.
The 30-year-old takes pole position after a storming couple of final laps.
Verstappen and Ricciardo finish in second and third respectively, though Hamilton stays in fifth. PLACE YOUR TEXT ADVERT BELOW:>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> How I Made Me =N=2.5 MILLION In 7 Days from 2 Common Product I Imported and how you can do the same. Click HERE FOR FREE Details right now Warning To Men: This 3 Foods Is Killing Your Erection. Click Here To Know Them Secret Fruits that increased my Manhood and makes me last 55 minutes+ all time - Click here to get it Warning: Got Arthritis? 3 Simple Ways To Get Cured And Be Permanently Free From Joint Pains. Click Here To See Them REVEALED!! Reduce Your Blood Sugar Level And Reverse Diabetics Within A Short Period Of Time. Click Here To See How MIDNIGHT,Pressed Mr Kilanko Suddenly Couldn't Urinate. Shrink your Enlarged Prostrate Here! Click Here Now