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Wednesday, 19 April 2017

Nowhere to Hide For HIV Virus as Scientists Make Breakthrough... See Details

The breakthrough needed for the cure of HIV/AIDS might have finally been found by a group of scientists from the University of North Carolina.

Scientists have confirmed Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) can survive in another less-explored type of white blood cell. Until now, treatment and cure research has focused on blocking the virus from T-cells, a type of white blood cell that is key to the immune system.

However, new research by the University of North Carolina (UNC), United States (U.S.), reveals the virus can also persist exclusively in macrophages, large white blood cells found in the liver, lung, bone marrow and brain.

The breakthrough discovery could explain why – despite monumental advances in suppressing the virus – no treatment has successfully cured anyone of the disease.
“These results are paradigm changing because they demonstrate that cells other than T cells can serve as a reservoir for HIV,” said Dr Jenna Honeycutt, lead-author and postdoctoral research associate in the UNC Division of Infectious Diseases. “The fact that HIV-infected macrophages can persist means that any possible therapeutic intervention to eradicate HIV might have to target two very different types of cells.”

HIV treatments have advanced to the extent that a daily regimen of pills can make the virus undetectable and non transmittable. Roughly 30 percent of America’s 1.2 million people with HIV have reached an undetectable viral load.

A person with HIV becomes ‘undetectable’ when treatment targeting T-cells suppresses the virus to a level so low in their blood that it cannot be detected by measurements. If a person is undetectable and stays on treatment, they cannot pass HIV on to a partner. No study has ever shown HIV transmission from someone with an undetectable viral load.

To date, an undetectable load is almost always achieved with daily doses of antiretroviral drugs.

But a number of clinical trials – including PRO-140 by CytoDyn, which Charlie Sheen is involved in – hope to be developing treatments that could be administered on a weekly or fortnightly basis.

This endeavor could be transformed by the latest UNC research, which builds on years of speculation in the HIV research community. Last spring, UNC School of Medicine demonstrated that tissue macrophages supported HIV’s survival in the body, independent of human T cells.

But how macrophages would respond to antiretroviral therapy (ART) was unknown. They also were not sure whether macrophages could be a de facto reservoir for HIV after treatment, or whether they simply supported the virus.

Macrophages are myeloid lineage cells that have been implicated in HIV pathogenesis and in the trafficking of virus into the brain.

Using a humanized myeloid-only mouse (MoM) model devoid of T cells, Garcia and his team showed that ART strongly suppresses HIV replication in tissue macrophages.

Yet when HIV treatment was interrupted, viral rebound was observed in one third of the animals. This is consistent with the establishment of persistent infection in tissue macrophages.

“This is the first report demonstrating that tissue macrophages can be infected and that they respond to antiretroviral therapy,” Honeycutt said.

“In addition, we show that productively infected macrophages can persist despite ART; and most importantly, that they can reinitiate and sustain infection upon therapy interruption even in the absence of T cells – the major target of HIV infection.”

Now that Garcia and his team know HIV persists in macrophages, the next step will be to determine why and how HIV persists in tissue macrophages.

They will also investigate where in the body persistently infected macrophages reside during HIV treatment, and how macrophages respond to therapeutic interventions.

-Adapted from DailyMailUK Online

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2 comments :

  1. I am from New York. I was in trouble when doctor told me that I have been
    diagnosed Hiv with … I though about my Family, I know my Family will
    face a serious problem when I’m gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one
    day I was surfing the Internet I found Dr. Emmanuel contact number. I called him
    and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my
    health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. Emmanuel herbal
    medicine, I’m very thankful to Dr. Emmanuel and very happy with my hubby and
    family. email him on traditionalherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com

    DOCTOR EMMANUEL CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. DIABETES
    6. HEPATITIS

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I am from New York. I was in trouble when doctor told me that I have been
      diagnosed Hiv with … I though about my Family, I know my Family will
      face a serious problem when I’m gone, I lost hope and I wept all day, but one
      day I was surfing the Internet I found Dr. Emmanuel contact number. I called him
      and he guided me. I asked him for solutions and he started the remedies for my
      health. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr. Emmanuel herbal
      medicine, I’m very thankful to Dr. Emmanuel and very happy with my hubby and
      family. email him on traditionalherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com

      DOCTOR EMMANUEL CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-
      1. HIV/AIDS
      2. HERPES
      3. CANCER
      4. ALS
      5. DIABETES
      6. HEPATITIS

      Delete

 
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